Vertebrate fauna of Wallacea and surrounds

16 Vertebrate fauna: mammals

In the table below a number of the mammals of Indonesia, New Guinea and Australia is listed. This is not a complete listing, but rather a sampling of some of the more obvious, unique or characteristic animals from these areas.

Notice how amongst the mammals there are several clear patterns:

  • Monotremes occur only in Australasia
  • A large variety of placental mammals occur in Indonesia
  • The mammals of Australia include various marsupials, but also bats and rodents
  • Many of the groups that occur in Australia also occur in New Guinea

Mammals

Monotremes (Prototheria)
Placentals (Eutheria)
Marsupials (Metatheria)
Fauna of Indonesia Fauna of New Guinea Fauna of Australia
Nearly all are placental mammals; with the exception of the common spotted cuscus and two species of endemic cuscus on Sulawesi there are no marsupials in the Oriental region. Various endemic species of marsupial and placental mammals inhabit New Guinea. Approximately half the mammals of Australia are placentals (rodents and bats) and half are marsupials. The marsupials have undergone a major evolutionary radiation in Australia, and most species are endemic.
Note: Northern Australia and southern New Guinea share some species of mammals including dasyurids (carnivorous marsupials), bandicoots, the Agile Wallaby Macropus agilis, and some bats (e.g. flying foxes) and rodents.
echidnas (two species) platypus and echidna
Primates

  • orangutan
    (Sumatra & Borneo)
  • macaques
  • langurs
  • gibbons
  • lorises
  • tarsiers
Carnivora

  • cats including tiger (Family Felidae)
  • otters, badgers (Family Mustelidae)
  • civets (Family Viverridae)
Dasyuromorphia

  • carnivorous marsupials including Antechinus, quolls, Murexia spp., dunnarts, etc.
    (Family Dasyuridae)
Dasyuromorphia

  • carnivorous marsupials including Antechinus, kowari, dasykaluta, quolls, dunnarts, planigales, tasmanian devil, etc. (Family Dasyuridae)
  • numbat (Family Myrmecobiidae)
Proboscidea

  • Asian elephant
    (Sumatran subspecies)
Perissodactyla

  • tapir (Sumatra)
  • rhinoceros
    (Sumatra, Borneo & Java)
Artiodactyla

  • banteng Bos javanicus
    (Family Bovidae)
  • deer, muntjacs
    (Family Cervidae)
  • wild pig, babirusa
    (Family Suidae)
Perameloidea

  • peroryctid bandicoots
Perameloidea

  • peramelid bandicoots
Diprotodonta

  • tree kangaroos
    (Dendrolagus spp.)
  • medium-sized endemic wallabies (Dorcopsis and Thylogale spp.)
    (Family Macropodidae)
  • cuscuses & possums
    (Family Phalangeridae)
Diprotodonta

  • kangaroos (Macropus spp.), rock-wallabies (Petrogale spp.), forest wallabies, hare-wallabies, pademelons
    (Family Macropodidae)
  • potoroos & bettongs (Family Potoroidae)
  • brushtail possums (Family Phalangeridae)
  • ringtail possums (Family Pseudocheiridae)
  • honey possum (Family Tarsipedidae)
  • pygmy possums (Family Burramyidae)
  • koala (Family Phascolarctidae)
  • wombats (Family Vombatidae)
Pholidota

  • pangolins (Family Manidae)
Insectivora

  • shrews (Family Soricidae)
Scandentia

  • tree-shrews (Family Tupaiidae)
Rodentia

  • squirrels, flying squirrels, rats and mice
Rodentia

  • numerous species including many from endemic genera including:
    Anisomys, Coccymys, Hyomys, Mallomys, Leptomys, Xenuromys, Parahydromys
Rodentia

  • native mice including:
    Pseudomys, Notomys, Zyzomys spp.
Chiroptera

  • fruit bats (megachiroptera)
  • microbats (several families)
Chiroptera

  • fruit bats (megachiroptera)
  • microbats (several families)
Chiroptera

  • fruit bats (megachiroptera)
  • microbats (several families)

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