Darwin and Wallace papers

26 References & further readings

Galapagos Iguanas

  • Christian, K.A. 1980. Cleaning/Feeding symbiosis between birds and reptiles of the Galapagos Islands: New observations of inter-island variability. Auk 97:887-889.
  • Christian, K.A. and Tracy, C.R.  1981. The effect of the thermal environment on the ability of hatchling Galapagos Land Iguanas to avoid predation during dispersal. Oecologia 49:218-223.
  • Christian, K.A. and Tracy, C.R. 1982. Reproductive behavior of the Galapagos Land Iguana Conolophys pallidus on Isla Santa Fe, Galapagos. pp 366-379 in: Iguanas of the World; Behavior, Ecology and Conservation.  G.M. Burghardt and A.S. Rand, eds. Noyes Publishers, N.J.
  • Christian K.A., Tracy, C.R. and Porter,  W.P. 1983. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by the Galapagos Land Iguana. Ecology 64:463-468.
  • Christian K.A., Tracy, C.R. and Porter, W.P. 1984. The diet, digestion and food preferences of Galapagos Land Iguanas. Herpetologica 40:205-212.
  • Christian K.A., Tracy, C.R. and Porter, W.P. 1984. The physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping site selection by the Galapagos Land Iguana Conolophus pallidusEcology65:752-758.
  • Christian, K.A., Tracy, C.R. , and Porter, W.P. 1985. Inter- and intra-individual variation in body temperatures of the Galapagos Land Iguana (Conolophus pallidus). Journal of Thermal Biology 10:47-50.
  • Christian, K.A., Tracy, C.R. and  Porter, W.P. 1986. Core areas in the home ranges of Galapagos land iguanas. Journal of Herpetology 20:272-276.
  • Snell, H.L. and Christian, K.A. 1985. Energetics of Galapagos land iguanas: A comparison of two island populations. Herpetologica 41:437-442.

Long-Neck Turtles

  • Kennett, R., Christian, K. and Pritchard, D. 1993. Underwater nesting by the tropical freshwater turtle, Chelodina rugosa (Testudinata, Chelidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 41:47-52.
  • Kennett, R., A. Georges, and M. Palmerallen.1993. Early developmental arrest during immersion of eggs of a tropical fresh-water turtle, Chelodina rugosa (Testudinata, Chelidae), from Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 41:37 – 45.
  • Kennett, R., and Christian, K. 1994. Metabolic depression in estivating long-neck turtle Chelodina rugosaPhysiological Zoology 67:1087-1102.
  • Kennett, R., Christian, K. and Bedford, G.  1998. Underwater nesting by the Australian freshwater turtle, Chelodina rugosa: The effect of prolonged immersion and eggshell thickness on incubation period, egg survivorship and hatchling size. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1019-1023.
  • Seymour, R. S., Kennett, R. and Christian, K. 1997. Osmotic balance in the eggs of the turtle Chelodina rugosa during developmental arrest under water. Physiological Zoology 70:301-306.

Pig-Nosed Turtles

  • Doody, J.S., Stewart, B., Camacho, C. and Christian, K.  2012. Good vibrations? Sibling embryos expedite hatching in a turtle. Animal Behaviour 83:645-651.
  • Doody, J.S., Georges, A., Young, J.E., Pauza, M.D., Pepper, A.L., Alderman, R.L. and Welsh. M.A.  2001. Embryonic aestivation and emergence behaviour in the pig-nosed turtle, Carettochelys insculpta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 1062-1072.

Frillneck Lizards

  • Bedford, G.S., Christian, K. A.  and Griffiths, A. D. 1993. Preliminary notes on the reproduction of the frillneck lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii. pp. 127-131 in :D. Lunney and D. Ayers (eds) Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales.
  • Christian, K.A., and Bedford, G. S.  1995. Seasonal changes in thermoregulation by the frilled lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii in tropical Australia. Ecology 76:124-132.
  • Christian, K.A., and Green, B. 1994. Seasonal energetics and water turnover of the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, in the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Herpetologica 50:274-281.
  • Christian, K. A., Bedford, G. S.  and Griffiths, A. D.  1995. Frillneck lizard morphology: comparisons between sexes and sites. Journal of Herpetology 29:576-583.
  • Christian, K. A. and Bedford, G. S. 1995. Physiological consequences of filarial parasites in the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingiiCanadian Journal of Zoology 73:2302-2306.
  • Christian, K. A., Griffiths, A. D. and Bedford, G. S. 1996. Physiological ecology of frillneck lizards in a seasonal tropical environment. Oecologia 106:49-56.
  • Christian, K.A., Griffiths, A. D., Bedford, G. S. and G. Jenkin. 1999. Androgen concentrations and behavior of frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii). Journal of Herpetology 33:12-17.
  • Christian, K.A., Bedford, G. S. and Schultz, T.  1999. Energetic consequences of metabolic depression in tropical and temperate-zone lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 47:133-141.
  • Griffiths, A. D., and Christian, K. A. 1996. Diet and habitat use of frillneck lizards in a seasonal tropical environment. Oecologia 106:39-48.
  • Griffiths, A. D., and Christian, K. A. 1996. The effect of fire on the frillneck lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 21:386-398.
  • Griffiths, A. D., Jones, H. I.  and Christian, K. A. 1998. Effect of season on oral and gastric nematodes in the frillneck lizard from Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34:381-385.

Freshwater Crocodiles: Estivation

  • Christian, K.A., Green, B. and Kennett, R. 1996. Some physiological consequences of estivation by freshwater crocodiles, Crocodylus johnstoniJournal of Herpetology 30:1-9.
  • Kennett, R. and Christian, K.A. 1993. Aestivation by freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) occupying a seasonally ephemeral creek in tropical Australia. pp. 315-319 in :D. Lunney and D. Ayers (eds) Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales.

Weaver Ants

  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1995. The effect of the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on insect pests of cashew trees in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85:279-284.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1997. Control threshold analysis for the tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis pernicialis (Hemiptera: Miridae) and preliminary results of the control efficiency by the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northern Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 43:233-237.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1997. Distribution of the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in relation to native vegetation and the insect pests in cashew plantations in Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 43:203-211.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1998. The effect of non-crop vegetation on the insect pests and their natural enemies in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) plantations. Plant Protection Quarterly 13:16-20.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1998. How many queens are there in mature colonies of the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius)? Australian Journal of Entomology37:249-253.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1998. Locating queen ant nests in the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 45: 477-480.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 1999. The effect of colony isolation of the predacious green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on protection of cashew plantations from insect pests.  International Journal of Pest Management  45:189-194.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 2002. Biological control of Amblypelta spp (Hemiptera: Coreidae) using Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) – progress, prospects and challenges. Acta Horticulturae 575:495-502.
  • Peng, R.K. and Christian, K. 2004. The weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera:Formicidae), an effective biological control agent of the red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in mango crops in the Northern Territory of Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 50:107-114.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 2004. Implementing ant technology in commercial cashew plantations. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Publication  Number W04/088, 72 pp. http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/NPP/04-088.pdf
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 2005. Ecology of the fruit spotting bug, Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in cashew plantations, with particular reference to the potential for its biological control.  Australian Journal of Entomology.44:45-51.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. 2005. Integrated pest management in mango orchards in the Northern Territory of Australia, using the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a key element. International Journal of Pest Management 51:149-155.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. 2005. The control efficacy of the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on the mango leafhopper, Idioscopus nitidulus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidea) in mango orchards in the Northern Territory. International Journal of Pest Management 51:299-306.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. 2006. The effective control of Jarvis’s fruit fly, Bactrocera  jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae), by the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in mango orchards in the Northern Territory. International Journal of Pest Management 52:275-282.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.  2007. The effect of the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on the mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in mango orchards in the Northern Territory. International Journal of Pest Management 53:15-24.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. 2008. Potential for organic mango production in the Northern Territory of Australia using weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Horticulturae 767:81-88.
  • Peng, R.K. and Christian, K.A. 2008. The dimpling bug, Campylomma austrina Malipatil (Hemiptera: Miridae), damage and its relationship with ants in mango orchards in the Northern Territory of Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 54:173-179.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. 2009. Determination and management of weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), marks on mango fruit in the Northern Territory of Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 55:27-30.
  • Peng, R.K. and Christian, K.A. 2010. Ants as biological control agents in the horticultural industry. Box 7.2 in “Ant Ecology”, L. Lach, C.L. Parr and K.L. Abbott (eds.) pp. 123-125. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A., and Reilly, D.  2010. Weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as bio-control agents on African mahogany trees, Khaya senegalensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), in the Northern Territory of Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 56:363 – 370.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A., and Reilly, D.  2011. The effect of weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on the shoot borer, Hypsipyla robusta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on African mahoganies in Australia. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13:165-171.
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Gibb, K. 2012. The best time of day to monitor and manipulate weaver ant colonies in biological control. Journal of Applied Entomology 136:155-160. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01651.x
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Reilly, D. 2012. Biological control of the fruit spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens using weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina on African mahoganies in Australia. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 14:428-433.
  • Peng, R.K. and Christian, K.A. 2013. Do weaver ants affect the diversity of arthropods and the natural enemy to insect pest ratio in horticultural systems? Journal of Applied Entomology. DOI: 10.1111/jen.12058
  • Peng, R.K., Christian, K.A. and Reilly, D.  2013. Using weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina to control two important pests on African mahoganies Khaya senegalensis in the Northern Territory of Australia. Australian Forestry 76:76-82.

Wet-Dry Tropical Australia

  • Beringer, J., Hutley, L.B., Tapper, N.J., Coutts, A., Kerley, A. and O’Grady, A.P. 2003. Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in northern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12:333 – 340.
  • Douglas, M.M., Bunn, S.E. and Davies, P.M.  2005. River and wetland food webs in Australia’s wet–dry tropics: general principles and implications for management. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:329–342.
  • Eamus, D., Christian, K.A. 2003. Monsoonal Tropical Australia. Pp315-330 in Ecology: An Australian Perspective. P. M. Attiwill and B. Wilson, eds. Oxford University Press.
  • Finlayson, C.M., Bellio, M.G. and Lowry, J.B.  2005. A conceptual basis for the wise use of wetlands in northern Australia – linking information needs, integrated analyses, drivers of change and human well-being. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:269–277.
  • Hamilton, S.K., and Gehrke, P.C.  2005. Australia’s tropical river systems: current scientific understanding and critical knowledge gaps for sustainable management. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:243–252.
  • Robins, J.B., Halliday, I.A., Staunton-Smith, J.,  Mayer, D.G. and Sellin, M.J.  2005. Freshwater-flow requirements of estuarine fisheries in tropical Australia: a review of the state of knowledge and application of a suggested approach. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:343–360.
  • Rossiter, N.A., Setterfield, S.A., Douglas, M.M. and Hutley, L.B.  2003. Testing the grass-fire cycle: alien grass invasion in the tropical savannas of northern Australia. Diversity and Distributions 9:169-176.
  • Russell-Smith, J., Yates, C., Edwards, A., Allan, G.E., Cook, G.D., Cooke, P., Craig, R., Heath, B. and Smith, R.  2003. Contemporary fire regimes of northern Australia, 1997–2001: change since Aboriginal occupancy, challenges for sustainable management. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12:283 – 297.
  • Taylor, J.A., and Tulloch, D.  1985. Rainfall in the wet-dry tropics: Extreme events at Darwin and similarities between years during the period 1870–1983 inclusive. Australian Journal of Ecology 10:281-295.
  • Webster, I.T., Rea, N., Padovan, A.V., Dostine, P., Townsend, S.A., and Cook, S.  2005.  An analysis of primary production in the Daly River, a relatively unimpacted tropical river in northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 56:303–316.
  • Williams, R.J., Cook, G.D., Gill, A.M. and Moore, P.H.R.  1999. Fire regime, fire intensity and tree survival in a tropical savanna in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology  24:50-59.


  • Clark, T.D., Seymour, R.S., Christian, K.A., Wells, R.M.G., Baldwin,  J. and Ferrell, A.P.  2007. Changes in cardiac output during swimming and aquatic hypoxia in the air-breathing Pacific tarpon. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology  A 148:562-571.
  • Seymour, R.S., Bennett, M.B. and Christian, K.A. 2004. Partitioning of respiration between gills and air-breathing organs in response to aquatic hypoxia and exercise in the tarpon, Megalops cyprinoidsPhysiological and Biochemical Zoology 77:760-767.
  • Seymour, R.S., Farrell, A.P., Christian, K.A., Clark, T.D., Bennett, M.B., Wells, R.M.G. and Baldwin, J. 2007. Continuous measurement of oxygen tensions in the air-breathing organ of Pacific tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) in relation to aquatic hypoxia and exercise.  Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 177:579-587.
  • Wells, R.M.G., Baldwin, J., Seymour, R.S., Baudinette, R.V., Christian, K.A. and Bennett, M.B. 2003. Oxygen transport capacity in a facultative air-breathing fish, Megalops cyprinoides: compensations for strenuous exercise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A. 134:45-53.
  • Wells, R.M.G, Baldwin, J., Seymour, R.S., Christian, K.A, and Brittain, T. 2005. Red blood cell function and haematology in two tropical freshwater fishes from Australia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A. 141:87-93.
  • Wells, R.M.G., Baldwin, J., Seymour, R.S., Christian, K.A., and Farrell, A.P. 2007. Air breathing minimizes post-exercise lactate load in the tropical Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoidesBroussonet 1782 but oxygen debt is repaid by aquatic breathing. Journal of Fish Biology 71:1649-1661.

Mangrove Ants

  • Nielsen, G.M., Christian, K.A. and Birkmose D.  2003. Carbon dioxide concentrations in the nests of the mud dwelling mangrove ant Polyrhachis sokolova Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Australian Journal of Entomology 42:357-362.
  • Nielsen, G.M., Christian, K.A., Henriksen, P.G. and Birkmose. D. 2006. Respiration by mangrove ants Camponotus anderseni during nest submersion associated with tidal inundation in northern Australia. Physiological Entomology 31: 120-126.
  • Nelson, G.M., Christian, K.A. and Baudinette, R.V. 2007. Anatomy of the nasal passages of three species of Australian bats as related to water loss. Australian Journal of Zoology. 55:57-62.
  • Nielsen, M.G. and Christian, K.A. 2007. The mangrove ant, Camponotus anderseni, switches to anaerobic respiration in response to elevated CO2 levels. Journal of Insect Physiology. 53:505-508.
  • Nielsen, M.G., Christian, K.A. and Malte. H.  2009. Hypoxic conditions and oxygen supply in nests of the mangrove ant, Camponotus anderseni, during and after inundation. Insectes Sociaux 56:35-39.


  • Andersen, A., and Jacklyn, P.M. 1993. Termites of the Top End. CSIRO, Australia.
  • Jacklyn, P.M. 1991. Evidence for adaptive variation in the orientation of Amitermes (Isoptera, Termitinae) mounds from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 39:569 – 577.
  • Jacklyn, P.M. 1992. “Magnetic” termite mound surfaces are oriented to suit wind and shade conditions. Oecologia 91:385-395.
  • Jacklyn, P.M. 2002. Evidence for the use of magnetic cues in mound construction by the termite Amitermes meridionalis (Isoptera : Termitinae). Australian Journal of Zoology 50:357-368.

Frog Water Balance

  • Reynolds, S.J., Christian, K.A., and Tracy, C.R. 2009. Application of a method for obtaining lymph from anuran amphibians. Journal of Herpetology 43:148-154.
  • Reynolds, S.J. and Christian, K.A. 2009. Environmental moisture availability and body fluid osmolality in introduced toads, Rhinella marina, in monsoonal northern Australia. Journal of Herpetology 43:326-331.
  • Reynolds, S.J., Christian, K.A. and Tracy, C.R.  2010. The cocoon of the fossorial frog Cyclorana australis functions primarily as a barrier to water exchange with the substrate. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 83: 877-884.
  • Reynolds, S.J., Christian, K.A., Tracy, C.R. and Hutley, L.B.  2011. Changes in body fluids of the cocooning fossorial hylid Cyclorana australis in a seasonally dry environment. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 160:348-354.
  • Sadowski-Fugitt, L.M., Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A. and Williams, J.B.  2012. Cocoon and epidermis of Australian Cyclorana frogs differ in composition of lipid classes that affect water loss. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85:40-50.
  • Tracy, C.R. and Christian, K.A. 2005. Preferred temperature correlates with evaporative water loss in hylid frogs from northern Australia. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78:839-846.
  • Tracy, C.R., Betts, G., Tracy, C.R. and Christian, K.A.  2007. Plaster models to measure operative temperature and evaporative water loss of amphibians.  Journal of Herpetology 41:597-603.
  • Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Reynolds, S.J., McArthur, L. and Tracy, C.R. 2007. Ecology of aestivation in an Australian frog, Cyclorana australis (Hylidae). Copeia 2007:901-912.
  • Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Betts, G. and Tracy, C.R. 2008. Body temperature and resistance to evaporative water loss in tropical Australian frogs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 150:102-108.
  • Tracy, C.R. and Christian, K.A.  2010. Not just small, wet, and cold: effects of body size and skin resistance on thermoregulation and arboreality of frogs. Ecology 91:1477-1484.
  • Tracy, C.R. and Christian, K.A. 2011. Condensation onto the skin as a means for water gain by tree frogs in tropical Australia.  The American Naturalist. 178:553-558.
  • Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Burnip, N., Austin, B. J., Cornall, A., Iglesias, S., Reynolds, S. J., Tixier, T., Le Noene, C.  2013. Thermal and hydric implications of diurnal activity by a small tropical frog during the dry season. Austral Ecology 38:476-483.
  • Young, J.E, Christian, K.A., Donnellan, S., Tracy, C. R. and Parry, D.  2005. Comparative analysis of cutaneous evaporative water loss in frogs demonstrates correlation with ecological habits. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78:847-856.
  • Young, J.E., Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A. and McArthur, L. 2006. Rates of cutaneous evaporative water loss of native Fijian frogs. Copeia 2006: 83-88.

Hypolithic Cyanobacteria

  • Tracy, C.R., Streten-Joyce, C., Dalton,  R., Gibb, K.S. and Christian, K.A.  2010. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia. Environmental Microbiology 12:592-607.
  •  Warren-Rhodes, K.A., Rhodes, K.L., Pointing, S.B., Ewing, S.A., Lacap, D.C., Gómez-Silva, B., Amundson, R., Friedmann, E.I. and McKay, C.P.  2006. Hypolithic cyanobacteria, dry limit of photosynthesis, and microbial ecology in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Microbial Ecology 52:389-398.
  • Schlesinger, W.H., Pippen, J.S., Wallenstein, M.D., Hofmockel, K.S., Klepeis, D.M. and Mahall, B.E. 2003. Community composition and photosynthesis by photoautotrophs under quartz pebbles, southern Mojave Desert. Ecology 84:3222–3231.


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